Everything You Need To Know About GTO in Poker

Dominic Field

Apr 20, 2023

Poker statistics

GTO, or Game Theory Optimal, is a popular strategy in the game of poker. The idea is based on the concept of using the best possible strategy in a given situation to maximise your chances of winning.

In this guide, we’ll explain the GTO poker meaning and discuss the advantages of such a strategy. We’ll also give an overview of how to start using these ideas and share some of the challenges you may face. By the end of this article, you should be ready to take your poker game to the next level!

What Does GTO Mean?

Game Theory Optimal (GTO) is a comparatively new concept in the world of poker that many top players are striving to implement. It seeks to “solve” the game of poker and provide an unexploitable strategy that offers the optimal solution to any given situation.

In other words, the goal of playing GTO poker is to create a theoretically perfect poker strategy. It’s not for the faint-hearted though, as you’re about to learn in this guide. Playing GTO poker is extremely complex and requires a lot of advanced mathematical calculations. But if you’re ready to put in the effort, you can increase your profits in the long run.

Why Understanding GTO Poker Is Important

With the proliferation of advanced poker software and databases, players have access to more information than ever before. This allows them to study the tendencies of opponents and look for ways to exploit them. 

However, by playing a GTO strategy, a player can make it more difficult for their opponents to find exploitable spots in their game.

Exploitative Poker

Using an exploitative strategy is essentially the opposite of playing GTO poker. Exploitative plays aim to take advantage of the mistakes and weaknesses of opponents in order to gain an edge. 

A GTO poker strategy ignores this approach entirely. Instead, it focuses purely on theoretically optimal plays that would bring the best possible long-term results. But it also seeks to reduce opportunities for your opponents to exploit you.

About Game Theory

What is Game Theory?

At this point, it seems a good idea to expand a little on exactly what game theory is. This branch of mathematics studies strategic decision-making, modelling, and analysing interactions between decision-makers with conflicting interests. 

In short, game theory supplies a framework for understanding behaviour in situations where the outcome depends on the actions of multiple parties. 

It can be applied to dozens of different fields, including politics, economics, and biology. And although GTO poker is relatively new, some players have been incorporating game theory concepts into their strategy for years.

GTO Poker Strategy

Okay, it’s now time to learn more about playing a GTO poker strategy. There are several key concepts to understand.


The most important principle is that of frequencies. These pertain to pretty much every action you take, from continuation betting and bluffing to the basics of calling, folding, and raising. For instance, a good strategy will not simply involve calling 100% of the time in a given spot. You’ll need to mix in a range of calls, folds, and raises at varying frequencies.

GTO poker solvers provide the optimal strategy for any individual situation. These software programs suggest mixed strategies based on specific frequencies. For instance, a solver may recommend calling with a particular hand 65% of the time and folding 35% of the time. 

Starting Hand Ranges

To counteract the effects of positional disadvantage, you’ll need to employ increasingly tighter ranges the worse your starting position is. However, opening with premium starting hands alone is not sufficient. 

Using GTO poker ranges and principles, it is best to have a well-rounded starting hand range from each seat. These should include some hands that will give you a strong hand regardless of the flop texture. You can use GTO poker software to help you construct optimal poker range charts.

Minimum Defence Frequency

This principle concerns the percentage of hands in our range that we must commit to in order to avoid being taken advantage of. The formula to calculate Minimum Defence Frequency (MDF) is as follows:

MDF = Pot size / (Pot size + Bet size)

To determine which hands you want to bet or raise with, take the number of hand combinations in your starting range. Then use the MDF to calculate how many combinations you should be committing to. Typically, you should choose the hands with the best playability and highest equity against your opponent's betting range.

It's worth noting that the idea of MDF is mostly used in off-table analysis and is tough to implement during actual gameplay. However, by studying such foundational GTO concepts, it can help improve decision-making during a hand. Particularly against opponents who demonstrate relentless aggression.

Mixing In Bluffs 

Mixing in Bluffs in GTO StrategyTo be completely unpredictable and avoid exploitation, it is crucial to strike a balance between bluffs and value bets when betting. The number of bluffs you incorporate into your betting range depends on the size of your bet in relation to the pot. 

This principle is only relevant in river situations, as draws on the flop and turn still have value. While on the river, draws that have missed have no value and are therefore pure bluffs.

The ratio of bluffs to value bets for the flop is typically around 2:1. This is because there are fewer made hands on the flop as compared to the river and also because your bluffs will typically still have some equity. For the turn, a balanced ratio of around 1:1 is recommended for bluffing.

Is GTO Poker Better Than an Exploitative Style?

It is important to note that while a GTO strategy is considered to be "unexploitable", it does not mean it will always be the most profitable. By identifying and exploiting the mistakes of your opponents, you can punish them and increase your win rate.

In reality, it is impossible to play a fully GTO poker strategy anyway. But by learning and applying its principles, you can reduce your vulnerability to getting outplayed by skilled opponents. 

Overall, it's not a question of choosing exploitative play over GTO poker. The two styles serve different purposes and by understanding both strategies, you will have an edge over your competition.

Pros and Cons of GTO Poker

Pros and Cons of GTO PokerSo what is all the fuss about with GTO poker? And are there any downsides? Let’s take a look at the pros and cons of implementing a Game Theory Optimal poker strategy.


  • Simplified decision-making. If the game is solved, you no longer need to think about what to do in each spot. Simply follow the instructions of the solver.

  • Perfect strategy. Since GTO poker is theoretically perfect, decision-making is more accurate and your results will improve in the long run.

  • Unexploitable. You cannot be outplayed by a more skilled opponent when you correctly adopt a GTO poker strategy. 

  • Reduced variance. GTO ensures your play is balanced, rather than over-relying on certain tendencies. This lessens the impact of any single poor decision.

  • Great starting point. When no information is available about your opponents, you still have a solid platform on which to play winning poker.


  • Time-consuming. GTO poker is not something you can just jump right into. It requires incredibly complex calculations and solvers can take hours to crunch the numbers on a specific situation.

  • Requires a GTO opponent. This strategy works best against other players using a GTO style. Essentially, the solvers base their decisions on simulations played against other solvers. So in some situations, against weak and exploitable players, GTO is the wrong approach. Mixed strategies are important.

  • Can make you less money Tied to the above point, deploying these tactics against non-GTO poker players could actually cost you long-term profits. An exploitative style is needed against players with obvious weaknesses.

  • Eliminates gut feel. The act of simply following a GTO script can cause you to lose a lot of the instincts developed over time. Trusting your intuition is still a big part of poker, especially in live cash games.

  • What if everyone plays GTO? When all players employ perfect GTO poker, nobody has an advantage. This can lead to extremely long and dull games. Players are incentivised to continuously bet small, call and check.

How to Start Playing GTO Poker

The best way to start out learning GTO poker is to experiment with various tools online. This software can be used to generate ranges of hands for pre- and post-flop play, for example. Poker solvers also produce optimal bet sizings and can help you understand how to play in multiway pots.

Some useful GTO poker tools to help you get started include:

  • Simple GTO Poker Trainer: Extremely user-friendly GTO training tool that focuses on preflop play. It includes a range editor, hand replayer, and a quiz mode that allows you to test your knowledge of GTO preflop ranges.

  • PioSolver: A powerful GTO poker solver that can be used to create ranges for various scenarios. It is widely considered one of the best GTO solvers on the market and is commonly used by professional players and coaches.

  • Poker Snowie: This versatile tool provides detailed analysis of your play, including a built-in hand replayer and range editor.

  • GTO+: A program that allows for the creation of preflop and postflop GTO poker strategies. It takes into account different bet sizes and frequencies, as well as the stack depth and number of players in the hand.

  • ICMIZER: An Independent Chip Model calculator and GTO poker tool. This can help you understand the Nash equilibrium, ICM, and how to play your equity in tournaments.

Poker and GTO: Conclusion

GTO aims to “solve” poker and provide step-by-step instructions for making the perfect play in every spot. But it’s a complex and time-consuming process that not everyone can easily adopt. And if everyone plays GTO poker properly, there’s no advantage to be gained anyway.

What’s more, it is not the best way to maximise profits against players with known weaknesses. While GTO poker is an excellent starting point, particularly when you know nothing about opponents, you must adjust if you discover a weakness. GTO can’t know these individual tendencies and so is not designed to optimally exploit them.

In reality, a perfect playing style simply doesn’t exist. So the ideal poker strategy blends elements of an exploitative approach with GTO.